08 August, 2012

Pitch Perfection - a psychological perspective

Adherence to shruti is the greatest truth in music.  Every prominent system in the world places extreme importance in tuneful renditions of its basic tones.  (To systems that have the fundamental 12 tones in an octave, systems that have many more may seem microtonal.)  

In reality, the yardsticks of what is tuneful varies from system to system.  For instance, certain note values in Just-Intonation system of natural melodic systems in the world like Carnatic Music (CM)/Hindustani (HM) are different to those heard in Equal Tempered-Tuning system, embraced in the West primarily to accommodate harmonization.

Varied yardsticks

In friendly terms, Just intonation is based on laws of physics and aesthetics, but the intervals between any two notes in an octave is not constant.  While this sounds beautiful when notes are heard one after the other, it can create problems when certain note-combinations are rendered simultaneously by orchestras.  Therefore, for reasons of harmony, Western scholars 'averaged out' some note values to create equal intervals between the 12 tones.   Violin-legend Yehudi Menuhin has gone on record arguing that this artificial sharpening or flattening of notes (however minute) has corrupted Western ears (in his book, 'Unfinished Journey').  In fact, that is one of the reasons why certain notes on instruments from the West like Guitar/Piano can sound slightly off to sensitive listeners used to melodic systems like Hindustani/Carnatic. 

Contextual perfection

Nevertheless, artistes are expected to be tuneful within the context of each system.  When they are not, they are dismissed off as 'off-key' (West) or 'besur' (Hindustani).  In both these systems, pitch perfect is almost synonymous with note-perfect. The CM equivalent of this is apaswaram. However, CM also uses the term shruti-shuddham to denote melodic fidelity and refers to a lack of it as apashruti.

Swara, sthana & shruti

Carnatic uses only 7 notes (swara) and 12 tones (sthana) per octave even though it gives 16 names for these, unlike systems like Arabic, (which openly uses 31 notes per octave).  The extra twist in Carnatic is that has multiple subtle values for any given note, called shruti.   It is almost mandatory to sharpen certain notes like major 7th (kakali nishadam, N3) or the sharp 4th (prati madhyamam - M2) and render it almost on Sa and Pa respectively.   Several other notes are rendered lower or higher depending on the raga and at times, within the context of a given raga.  For instance the minor 2nd (shuddha rishabham - R1) in Revati would be rendered normally, while the same will tend to be closer to Sa in Saveri, Gowla etc.  Hindustani would generally tend to render most of these notes on their natural values (exceptions could be there). 


Musicians of even average quality are required to be clearly cognizant of the correct value of the pitch and expected to be able to render them competently.  Yet, artistes can be off key (less or more than the note-value) for a variety of reasons.  At the student level, it could be due to reasons of non-awareness, inexperience, incompetence, insufficient practice or physical factors (like voice limitations).  Over time, most of these can be overcome, with effort and direction under a good guru.  Once a basic stage of competence and comfort is reached with respect to shruti, a musician would be expected to be tuneful. 

...and deviations

Yet, we find only a small percentage of artistes who render tuneful music.  Even here, degrees vary from 'general' and 'acceptable' levels to 'laser beam' levels of intense precision.  Why would this be among musicians of otherwise same standard and substance?  One easy question with tough, multiple answers! 
  1. The reason could be professional - lack of practice, lack of effort on every note, thinking musicianship or commitment to perfection. 
  2. The reasons then get to physiological such as health, which (at least in some cases) are beyond an individual's control.  Or it could simply be aging related weaknesses.
  3. Or it could be scientifically attributable to personal habits.  It would be prudent to point out the non-judgmental view of a person closest to God that the planet has seen in sports, Don Bradman. 'Surely certain habits can impact on the reflexes and efficiency of movement,' is all he said but that is profound indeed. 
Needless to say, some of these could be  due to a combination of interconnected factors.

The elusive factor

However, another key factor, rarely brought to the table openly, is the mental make up of a person.  Probably because, it is the most elusive part to analyse and commit to.  Yet, I am placing certain important but certainly impersonal observations on record here. To summarise a few:
  • An  over-eager, over confident, aggressive, frenzied, agitated mindset with Attitude, may result in music higher than shruti (over the short or long term).
  • A person tends to be below key when tired, deflated, weak or under-motivated, again over short or long term. 
  • A person tends to be both these when sporting a frivolous, happy-go-lucky or take-it-easy style complacent mindset.
  • A person tends to waver, sway or float on plain, sustained notes when the mind is unsteady or afflicted by fear, guilt, lack of confidence or personal esteem. 
  • A person tends to slip a lot on dynamic phrases when the mind is distracted or cluttered with unwanted baggage and unclear thoughts. 
  • A person tends to produce dry music that can be all over the pitch-map while in a frustrated frame of mind. 
Fundamental correlation

Just as the 17th chapter in the Bhagawad Gita classifies various things as sattva, rajas or tamas, a fundamental correlation can be drawn between truth in life and truth in music.  Music higher than shruti is rajasic, music lower is tamasic.  Pure music is sattvic.  

In short, perfect pitch is not merely to do with talent and technique.  At the advanced level, it is more to do with the mental make up.  The tragic part in many cases is that the affected person scarcely notices the dip in musical form till too late.  Since any given artiste could sport a combination of varied mind set listed above at different times, it is tough for a normal person to pin down the exact reason for lack of shruti at any given point in time.


Scary as the above sounds, they can all be overcome by mind-action-control and a person of class can re-discover personal form.  It may take a lot of personal effort, sustained focus, will power to eliminate every unnecessary distraction and channelise thought, counselling from experts, but it can be done, if artistes are keenly aware of their own form at every step of the way.  

In some lucky cases, a visionary guru would be able to take highly dynamic steps early enough to stem the rot, with equally committed students.  However, if timely action is not taken immediately, covering every possible angle, the case could soon get beyond redemption and join a majority of 'may-have-been' successes.  

It ultimately boils down to how intensely desperate one is to pursue musical truths, get back to the top and stay there!  

09 July, 2012

Success through Inertia

Most of us blame inertia for not doing something or for not even feeling up to doing something, I ruminated on the negative spell this Newtonian Law of Physics seems to exert on peoples psyches all around.  

It dawned upon me this morning that inertia is not responsible for only this pathetic apathetic state of mind.  It can as easily be tapped positively so that we end up doing a lot of things beneficial to ourselves or others. 

In fact, millions have done it (and continue to do so) under various garbs.  

What is inertia?  To paraphrase Newton, "An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction - unless acted upon by an external force".  

This is as true for human minds and bodies too.  In fact, to a lesser degree, it is true for human  emotions too.  

We see the victims all the time - sedentary people continue to revel in it day in and day out, alcoholics and other addicts continue to be so and so forth.  

To a lesser degree, we also see the opposite - fitness fanatics cannot stop exercising, those who follow strict practice-ethics would often be hard pressed to stop practicing and so forth.  These are the beneficiaries of positive inertia.  

At a slightly macro level, we see teams that have developed a systematic habit of winning over time are unstoppable during their streak and vice-versa.  Same goes for countries that have developed or developing.  The latter tend to stay in their side of the court for decades or even centuries at times...

How to build positive inertia:  The key is to get out of negative inertia first.  This will take us to a neutral zone - if not anything more.  From here on, one can work towards building a momentum in positive things - be it practice or exercise or academic pursuits or something as simple as getting up early in the morning.  After a few days or weeks, positive inertia kicks in and takes over.  From here on it is generally smooth sailing.  For instance, someone who has got into the habit of getting up at 4 am can more often than not do it even if he or she slept in very late on certain days.  Someone who has got used to practicing music for 4 (or 8 or any number of) hours will find ways to do it even if there are other unavoidable engagements on certain days.  

All these are results of inertia - which, at the end of the day is only a neutral thing.  It is entirely we who make it positive or otherwise...

Selective Moral Discomforts and Outrages of Convenience against Tyagaraja

As someone who has been passionate from early teens about making Carnatic Music socially broad based and initiated pioneering steps for the ...